Gale Virtual Reference Library

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GVRL Arts & Humanities

Arts and Humanities Through the Eras
Milestones and movements in the arts, literature, music and religion from specific periods.

GVRL: Baker's Biographical Dictionary Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Popular Musicians Since 1990
Includes discographies, bibliographies, a glossary, best-selling music and more.
GVRL: Schirmer Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film
Introduction to film and film studies.


Amer. Men and Women of Science American Men and Women of Science
Biographical dictionary of the significant players in the physical, biological and related sciences.
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GRVL: Encyclopedia of Business & Finance Encyclopedia of Business and Finance
Accounting, economics, finance, information, systems, law, management and marketing.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Business Ethics

Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society 
Explores the ethical obligations of corporations to society.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns
Profiles of important marketing campaigns of the 20th and 21st Centuries.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Management Encyclopedia of Management
Topics in management theories and applications.
GVRL: Intl. Directory of Company Histories International Directory of Company Histories
Company histories for the leaders in an industry or geographic location
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GVRL: 21st Cent. Education 21st Century Education
Highlights the most important topics students obtaining an Education degree should master in the 21st Century.
GVRL: ASCD ASCD Education Collection
55 professional development titles from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
GVRL: Encyc. of Cross-Cultural School Psychology Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural School Psychology
Explores concepts, themes, and latest research findings.
GVRL: Encyc. of Education Law Encyclopedia of Education   
The institutions, people,processes and products in worldwide educational practice.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Education Encyclopedia of Education Law 
Key cases and statutes, constitutional issues, curricular issues, teachers and more.
GVRL: Encyc. of the Social & Cultural Foundations of Education Encyclopedia of the Social and Cultural Foundations of Education
Surveys the role of teaching and learning in American society.
GVRL: Psych. of Classroom Learning Psychology of Classroom Learning: an Encyclopedia
Topics include cognition, motivation, emotion and environmental factors. Topics include cognition, motivation, emotion and environmental factors.
GVRL: World Education Encyclopedia World Education Encyclopedia
The histories, legal foundations and primary and secondary educational systemsof 233 countries.
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GVRL: Africa Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students
Examines the history, art and culture of the African continent.
GVRL: American Decades American Decades
Source for documenting and analyzing periods of contemporary American social history.
American Decades 1990-2000

American Decades 2000-2009  

 From monumental events and groundbreaking individuals to the fascinating details of Americans' daily lives from 2000-2009.

GVRL: American Decades Primary Sources  American Decades Primary Sources
Chronology of events in political, social and cultural history, including popular culture.
GVRL: Ancient Europe Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000: An Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World
Examines the diverse peoples of early European civilization.
GVRL: Ancient Greece Ancient Greece
Surveys Greek history, culture and civilization from its earliest remains until the Battle of Actium (31 B.C.E.).
GVRL: Dictionary of American History Dictionary of American History
Authoritative information on a wide range of topics in American history.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of African-American Culture Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History
Addresses broad themes critical to African-American cultures, achievements and challenges in the Americas.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Clothing & Fashion Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion
The origins, development and social meanings of clothing and body adornment.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of European Social History Encyclopedia of European Social History
More than 230 articles on everything from serfdom and the economy, to witchcraft and public health.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Genocide Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity
Worldwide issues behind crimes against humanity and human rights.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Irish History Encyclopedia of Irish History and Culture
Irish history and culture from the prehistoric to the present.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Latin American History Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture
Latin American history and culture from prehistoric times to the present.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Modern Asia Encyclopedia of Modern Asia
Survey of modern Asia with countries, cities, regions, religions, social issues and more.
Encyclopedia of Modern China Encyclopedia of Modern China
Critical information on the world's most populous country and dynamic trade market.
 Encycl. of Recreation and Leisure in America Encyclopedia of Recreation and Leisure in America
The pursuit of leisure in the United States, from Colonial to modern times.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Russian History Encyclopedia of Russian History
Political, economic and cultural history of Russia from ancient times through the fall of the Soviet Union.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of the Great Depression Encyclopedia of the Great Depression
Comprehensive overview of Depression-era social and political history and culture.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa
Social and political changes in the Middle East and North Africa.
GVRL: Europe 1450 to 1789 Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World
European social, cultural and political history from 1450 to 1789.
GVRL: Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: Government and Politics
U.S. government and politics throughout American history.
GVRL: Gale Encyclopedia of World History Gale Encyclopedia of World History: Governments
Broad overview of national governments throughout history.
GVRL: Slavery in America Gale Library of Daily Life: Slavery in America
Historical information and primary source documents on slavery.
GVRL: Middle Ages Reference Library Middle Ages Reference Library 
The different civilizations and peoples of Medieval times, including a collection of full or excerpted texts.
GVRL: New Encyclopedia of Africa New Encyclopedia of Africa
Addresses the entire history of African cultures and current issues facing the continent.
GVRL: U.S. Immigration and Migration U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library
Explores the waves of immigration to the United States from the earliest times to the present day.
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GVRL: Crime and Punishment in America Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library
The evolution of America's criminal justice system thoughout its history.
GVRL: Major Acts of Congress Major Acts of Congress

Illustrated encyclopedia of congressional acts from the earliest days of the American republic through recent years.

GVRL: West's Encyclopedia West's Encyclopedia of American Law
Current information on more than 5,000 legal topics.


Contemporary Poets Contemporary Poets
Concise discussions of the lives and principal works of poets from around the world.
GVRL: Dictionary of Literary Symbols Dictionary of Literary Symbols
Analysis and explanations of symbols from English, European and American literature and the Bible.
GVRL: Favorite Children's Authors and Illustrators Favorite Children's Authors and Illustrators
Child-friendly essays about popular storytellers in large type, with quotes, photos and sources.
GVRL: Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature 
Covers world authors from many periods and genres.
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GVRL: Encyclopedia of Cancer

Encyclopedia of Cancer 
Rapid access to focused information on topics of cancer research for clinicians, research scientists and students.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Public Health

Encyclopedia of Public Health 
Exhaustive information on public health topics, with overviews, definitions and biographical entries.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine

Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine 
Covers all aspects of the subject, from therapies to remedies to people.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Children's Health

Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health: Infancy through Adolescence 
In-depth coverage of pediatric diseases and disorders.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Diets

Gale Encyclopedia of Diets 
Topics include diets, dieting and weight-loss, nutrition and the health of dietary choices.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders

Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders 
Topics include conditions, tests, procedures, treatments and therapies.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Medicine

Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine 
Medical disorders and concepts, with causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and procedures.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Mental Health

Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health 
Entries for all 150 disorders classified in the DSM-IV-TR as well as drugs and therapies.

Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health

Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 
Includes body systems and functions, conditions and common diseases, issues and theories.

Gale Encyclopedia of Senior Health

Gale Encyclopedia of Senior Health 
Covers a number of issues related to the aging body.

GVRL: Harrison's Manual of Medicine

Harrison's Manual of Medicine 
Topics include therapeutics, symptoms, diagnosis and more, with concise practice guidelines.

GVRL: Nutrition and Well-Being

Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z 
Discusses the relationship between food and health from a historical, national and personal perspective.

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Multicultural Studies

Countries and their Cultures

Countries and their Cultures 
Explores the similarities and differences of over two hundred different cultures.

GVRL: Encyclopedia of Food

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture 
Food and its place in human culture and society.

GVRL: Fashion, Costume & Culture

Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages 
Broad overview of costume traditions of diverse cultures.

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America 
Essays on specific minority and ethnic groups in the U.S.

GVRL: Holidays, Festivals & Celebrations

Holidays, Festivals and Celebrations of the World Dictionary 
Describes holidays, festivals, commemorations, and other observances.

GVRL: Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures

Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life 
Cultural groups in Asia, Europe, the Americas and Africa.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations 
Information about 200 countries and dependencies from around the world.

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GVRL: Greek & Roman Mythology

Greenhaven Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology 
The heories, gods, and storeis of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

GVRL: UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology

UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology 
Includes Greek/Roman, Native North/South American, Norse, Asian Pacific, Judeo-Christian, Islamic and Hindu mythologies.


 GVRL: Encyclopedia of Buddhism Encyclopedia of Buddhism
Describes the Buddhist world view and explores the history of Buddhism.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Islam Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World
Islam's role in the modern world in context of its history and development over the last 13 centures.
GVRL: Encyclopedia Judaica Encyclopedia Judaica
Exhaustive overview of Jewish life and knowledge throughout history.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Philosophy Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Clear and accessible presentation of wide-ranging philosophical subjects.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Religion Encyclopedia of Religion
Emphasizes religion's role in everyday life and as a unique experience from culture to culture.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Science & Religion Encyclopedia of Science and Religion
Examines topics like in vitro fertilization and cloning against the backdrop of relgious belief.
GVRL: Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions
Covers numerous religious groups in the U.S. and Canada.
GVRL: New Catholic Encyclopedia New Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic-centered answers to questions on topics such as abortion, divorce, cloning and reproductive technologies.
GVRL: New Catholic Encyclopedia Supplement New Catholic Encyclopedia - Supplement 2009
Focuses on the theme of science and the church.
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New Catholic Encyclopedia - Supplement 2010

Includes over 340 signed peer-reviewed articles, bios of the beatified and canonized since 2010 as well as entries on other relevant current Catholic issues.

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 GVRL: Animal Sciences Animal SciencesExplores the diversity in the animal kingdom and includes biographies of key scientists.
GVRL: Biology Biology: Macmillan Science Library
Overview of all aspects of biological science.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Global Warming & Climate Change Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change
The science and history of climate change.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Science, Technology & Ethics Encyclopedia of Science, Technology and Ethics
Considers the professional ethics of science and technology.
Chemistry: Foundations and Applicatoins Chemistry: Foundations and Applications
Presents any science learner with a clear introduction to chemistry.
GVRL: Environmental Encyclopedia Environmental Encyclopedia 
In-depth coverage of environmental issues
GVRL: Environmental Issues Environmental Issues: Essential Primary Sources
Primary source documents and information to place each document in context.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Science Gale Encyclopedia of Science
Covers all major areas of science, engineering, technology, mathematics and medical/health.
GVRL: Plant Sciences Plant Sciences
All aspects of plant sciences, from forensic botany to genetic engineering
GVRL: Real-Life Math Real-Life Math
Helps students better understand commonly studied math concepts by illustrating their use in everyday tasks.
GVRL: Science of Everyday Things Science of Everyday Things
Scientific principles and theories in the context of everyday applications.
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Social Science

GVRL: Child Development Child Development
Covers issues related to human development from conception through adolescence.
Domestic Violence: A Reference Handbook Domestic Violence: A Reference Handbook
An examination of domestic violence from social, legal  and historical perspectives.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Bioethics Encyclopedia of Bioethics
Ethics of the health professions, animal research, population control and the environment.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Children & Childhood Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood in History and Society
Social and cultural history of childhood from antiquity to the present.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Community Encyclopedia of Community
Communities, social capital, technology, urban life, politics and law, community design and global studies
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Counseling Encyclopedia of Counseling
Overview of the theories, models, techniques, and challenges in professional counseling.
Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice
Legal, sociological, psychological, historical and economic aspects of worldwide crime and justice.
 GVRL: Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol and Addictive Behavior
Social, medical, legal and political issues of drugs and alcohol.
Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy
Examines the philosophical and ethical issues beneath environmental issues, policies and debates.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Homelessness Encyclopedia of Homelessness 
Focuses on the United States, with a comparative sample of homelessness around the world.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Human Development Encyclopedia of Human Development
Research and facts from the fields of psychology, individual and family studies and education.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Infant & Early Childhood Development Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development
Focuses on developmental changes, primarily from a psychological perspective.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Leadership Encyclopedia of Leadership
Leadership theories and practice from corporations, government, and nonprofits.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Population Encyclopedia of Population
Demographics, including the changes in population studies in the last 20 years.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Race & Racism Encyclopedia of Race and Racism
Race and racism in the modern era.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Social Problems Encyclopedia of Social Problems 
Social issues on the personal, local, regional, national and global levels.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Social Psychology Encyclopedia of Social Psychology
Exhaustive list of the most important concepts in social psychology.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Sociology Encyclopedia of Sociology
Includes race, poverty, violence, economics, abortion, the Internet, privacy and epidemiology.
Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human Development Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human Development
Examines three key life stages from a sociological perspective.
GVRL: Family in Society Family in Society: Essential Primary Sources
Primary source documents and overviews to place each document in context.
GVRL: Intl. Encyclopedia of Marriage & Family International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family
Topics include adolescent parenthood, family planning, cohabitation, widowhood and domestic violence.
GVRL: Intl. Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences
Topics include achievement testing, censorship, personality measurement, aging and more.
GVRL: Learning & Memory Learning and Memory
Overview of the changing fields of memory, neuroscience, and cognition.
GVRL: Encyclopedia of Death & Dying Macmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying
Exploration of the place of death in contemporary life.
GVRL: Psychologists and Their Theories for Students Psychologists and Their Theories for Students
Cover major psychological theories and the people who developed them.



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Updated 04/15/11